Keeping up with the rhythm of the rapidly evolving information and communication technology isn’t enough. Research shows the importance of integrating content knowledge, technological knowledge and pedagogical knowledge in teaching. “For this reason, teacher training in information and communication technology (ICT) needs to investigate the theoretical foundations guiding their application and use in the classroom, both at a disciplinary and at a pedagogical level, together with technological knowledge on how ICT work in its implementation.” (Rodriguez Moreno, 2019). The Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework, designed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), has had a major impact on research and determination of the kinds of knowledge required by teachers in order to integrate ICT in their lessons. In 2019, the TPACK model has had an upgrade by adding “another knowledge domain that teacher must possess to integrate technology in teaching” (Mishra, 2019). Mishra realized that the success of the effort of teachers to integrate technological, pedagogical and content knowledge also depends on their Knowledge of the ConteXt (XK) and how the situational and organizational constraints can effect sustainable change. (Mishra, 2019)
Figure 4: Revised version of the TPACK-model (Mishra, 2019)
The TPACK-model fits perfectly into the taxonomy of Bloom, used for many decades by teachers worldwide to design courses, determine and formulate the expected Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) and to create assessments. The taxonomy of Bloom is based on the classification of thinking skills into 6 hierarchically organized categories, ranged from lower level to higher order. The two-dimensional hierarchical table was first filled with nouns (Bloom, 1956) and after revision by Anderson and Krathwolh in 2001, the nouns were changed into verbs. (Anderson, Krathwolh, & al., 2014)
Want to know more? Watch this video: https://youtu.be/eXLdqO0fY3w
Figure 5: Revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy ( (Bloom, 1956)
In 2006 Rex Heer from Iowa State University again redesigned the taxonomy, in this case into a 3-dimensional framework. The cognitive domain was defined as the intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge dimension going from concrete (factual, conceptual, procedural) to abstract (metacognitive).
Figure 6: The 3-dimensional framework of Bloom’s taxonomy (Teach Tought Staff, 2016)
Formulating the objectives as intersections between a cognitive process dimension and a knowledge dimension, taken into account the curriculum, the context, the learners and will be an important first step in how you will connect the content delivery (online or F2F) to the learning activities using the Flipped Classroom method.
Want to know more on e-learning with Blooms Taxonomy? Watch this video: https://youtu.be/XJWFQI4TV5E
Flipped learning as one of the many forms of blended learning allows teachers and students to explore the deeper knowledge dimensions inside the classroom, because the basic knowledge a student needs is already reached in anticipation of the in-class face-to-face session. The teaching and activities during the class time include a wide area of active learning types and the possibility of a more personalized interaction between teacher and students on one hand and between students mutually through peer-instruction on the other hand.
It is an instruction method that combines TPACK with the ability of describing and achieving lesson objectives spread over the 3-dimensional framework of Bloom’s taxonomy.
Flipping the classroom includes a new way of thinking about both teaching and learning. From the students it requires a more active and deep learning at their own pace, from the educator it requires actively and collaboratively designing, facilitating and directing the learning taking into account the possibilities of the students as group and as individual learners.